Radiological Protection is the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of exposure to ionising and non-ionising radiation and the means for achieving this.
Ionising radiation is widely used in industry and medicine, and can present a significant health hazard by causing microscopic damage to living tissue.
Non-ionising radiation is the term used to descibe the part of the electromagnetic spectrum covering two main regions, namely optical radiation (ultraviolet, visible and infrared) ane electromagnetic fields (power frequenciees, microwaves and radio frequencies).
Fundamental to radiation protection is the avoidance or reduction of dose using the simple protective measures of time, distance and shielding. The duration of exposure should be limited to that necessary, the distance from the source of radiation should be maximised, and the source shielded wherever possible. To measure personal dose uptake in occupational or emergency exposure, for external radiation personal dosimeters are used, and for internal dose due to ingestion of radioactive contamination, bioassay techniques are applied.