Radiological Protection is the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of exposure to ionising and non-ionising radiation and the means for achieving this.
Ionising radiation is widely used in industry and medicine, and can present a significant health hazard by causing microscopic damage to living tissue.
Non-ionising radiation is optical radiation (ultraviolet, visible and infrared) and electromagnetic fields (electrical power frequencies, microwaves and radio frequencies) which do not have the power to damage living tissue by ionisation.
- The avoidance or reduction of dose using the protective measures of time exposed, distance from the radiation source and shielding of the source.
- The duration of exposure should be limited to that necessary, the distance from the source of radiation should be maximised, and the source shielded wherever possible.
For external radiation personal dosimeters are used
For internal dose due to ingestion of radioactive contamination, bioassay techniques are applied.